The flake came from Zagami, an 18-kilogram meteorite named after the Nigerian village where it was found in 1962.It is one of the rarest and most sought-after types of meteorite — a piece of Mars that was blasted into space by an asteroid impact and eventually landed on Earth.
The new Martian crater atlas is the largest single database ever compiled of impacts on a planet or moon in our solar system, researchers said.
It highlights the violent history of Mars and could also help scientists address a number of questions about the Red Planet.
"This database is a giant tool that will be helpful in scores of future Mars studies ranging from age-dating and erosion to planetary habitability, and to other applications we have not even thought of yet," study leader Stuart Robbins, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Colorado, Boulder, said in a statement.
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There are still small chunks of rock orbiting the Sun left over from the formation of the solar system.